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Jun 30, 2018
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This is what Japanese wikipedia says about the UK translated into English.
Source: Free encyclopedia "Wikipedia (Wikipedia)"

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Ambiguity avoidance " UK " has been transferred to this item . See " UK (Disambiguation) " for other uses .
Ambiguity avoidance " UK " has been transferred to this item . Please refer to " Eng (Spring / Autumn) " for the various nations of the spring and fall era .
Ambiguity avoidance This section covers European countries. Please see " Igirisu " for local cuisine in Nagasaki and Kumamoto prefectures .
Great Britain and Northern IrelandUnited Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland [1]
Country motto: Dieu et mon droit
( French : God and my rights )National Anthem : God Save The Queen (English)
Tamae be safety Queen God



United Kingdom map United Kingdom location
Official terminologyEnglish
capitalLondon (effectively)
Largest cityLondon
Grand total244,820 km 2 ( 76th )
Water area ratio1.3%
Total ( 2018 )66,435,600[2] people ( 22nd )
Population density271 / km 2
GDP(in local currency)
Total ( 2012 )1.554 trillion [3] UK pound (£)
Total ( 2012 )$ 2,433.7 billion [3] dollar ( 6th )
Total ( 2012 )$ 2,326.2 billion [3] ( 6th )
Per person$ 36,727 [3]
Kingdom of England / Kingdom of Scotland
(both countries until 1707 )
Great Britain Kingdom established
(joint law of 1707)
1707 May 1 day
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland established
( 1800 joint law )
1801 January 1 day
Changed to the current national name " Great Britain and the United Kingdom of Northern Ireland "April 12, 1927
currencyUK Pound (£) ( GBP )
Time zoneUTC ± 0 ( DST : +1)
ISO 3166-1GB / GBR / .gb [4]
International phone number44
  1. ^ Non-English official country name:
    • An Rìoghachd Aonaichte na Breatainn Mhòr agus Eirinn mu Thuath ( Scottish Gaelic )
    • Teyrnas Gyfunol Prydain Fawr a Gogledd Iwerddon ( Welsh )
    • Ríocht Aontaithe na Breataine Móire agus Tuaisceart na hÉireann ( Irish )
    • An Rywvaneth Unys a Vreten Veur hag Iwerdhon Glédh ( Cornish )
    • Unitit Kinrick o Great Breetain an Northren Ireland ( Scottish)
      • Claught Kängrick o Docht Brätain an Norlin Airlann , Unitet Kängdom o Great Brittain an Norlin Airlann (Ulster Scottish)
  2. ^ Population estimates-Office for National Statistics ” (June 26, 2019 ). Retrieved June 26, 2019 .
  3. ^ A B C D > Data And Statistics> World Economic Outlook Databases> By Countrise> United Kingdom
  4. ^ The use is overwhelmingly small compared to .uk.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, UK : United Kingdom Of Great Britain And Northern Ireland : UK ), the European continent is located in the north west coast of, Great Britain , Ireland northeast and other consists of many islands constitutional monarchy nation . The capital is London . Examples of common names in Japanese include the United Kingdom and the United Kingdom (→ # country names ).
Four "countries" called "countries" based on the historical background of England , Wales , Scotland and Northern Ireland adopt a unique governing system thatforms asingle sovereign state of the United Union , [1] Generallydistinguished from federal states.
John Bull and Britannia are known as personifications of Britain .
table of contents
Country [ edit ]
The official name in English " United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a", in Japanese, " United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland when it is" (such as the legal text) and " Great Britain and Northern Ireland United Kingdom " (Such as a treaty statement).
Abbreviations in English are " United Kingdom " and " UK ". Japanese general known as in " United Kingdom " or " UK is a" rare " United Kingdom " in the literal translation is " the United Kingdom is also (United Kingdom)" that is used. In the current official text, "UK" is used, and "UK" is often spoken colloquially . [2] "United Kingdom" had been used in the legal text to 2003 [3] .
"UK" is derived from the Portuguese word " Inglez " which refers to England , and originated from the arrival of Portuguese during the Warring States period. It is used to refer to the entire United Kingdom, regardless of its original meaning, and is distinguished from the United Kingdom's constituent "England". Edo era , the Dutch of " Engelsch (Engurushu)" and the etymology " Egeresu calling it" was also widely used [4] . Edo period from the Meiji - Taisho is in life, " the British Geely and (EIgirisu)" and "large non-column顛(Daifuretsuten. Great Britain)," written in Chinese characters in there were also to be, the former is the abbreviation of "UK" etymology is there. However, "the United Kingdom" is, England (not the entire United Kingdom in a narrow sense orchid UK price may refer to only) [5] .
The Joint Act of 1707 declares that the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland will be united. In the same law, the new national name " Kingdom of Great Britain has stated that the" or "Great Britain United Kingdom" and "United Kingdom" [6] [7] . However, the term "United Kingdom" was found only in informal use in the eighteenth century, and from 1707 to 1800, when it was merely "Great Britain" rather than "Long-form", the country was rarely officially named. [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] It was referred to as a "United Kingdom of Great Britain ." 1800 congruential method in, Great Britain kingdom and in 1801 Kingdom of Ireland to integrate, Great Britain and Ireland the United Kingdom has been established. Is the current official country name "Great Britain and Northern (part) Ireland United Kingdom", the Northern Ireland of 1922 only stayed as part of the United Kingdom Irish Free State independent and Ireland division ( English version ) is adopted after was [13].
Although the United Kingdom is a country as a sovereign nation, England, Scotland , Wales , there is no but Northern Ireland is so much stage, is not a sovereign state "country" (country) is referred to as the [14] [15] . Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have autonomy through delegated authority . [16] [17] In the web site of the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, the term "1 domestic countries" has been used as an explanation of the United Kingdom [1] . United Kingdom of 12 NUTS1 region of the ( English version ) in a number of statistical summary, such as statistics, Scotland, Wales, has been referred to as "region" the Northern Ireland [18] [19] . Northern Ireland is also referred to as "province" . [14] [20] Northern regard to Ireland, use of the descriptive name "in many cases, can become the subject of discussion in the reveal select the political preferences of the individual." [21] .
In English, the word "Britain" is frequently used as a synonym for the United Kingdom. The term "Great Britain", on the other hand, is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the entire United Kingdom, [22] [23] but originally refers to England, Scotland, and Wales, and includes Northern Ireland (i.e., Northern Ireland). refers to the entire United Kingdom) are not should be used when [24] [25] [26] .
"GB" and "GBR" are British standard country codes (see ISO 3166-2 and ISO 3166-1 alpha-3 ), which may be used by international organizations to refer to the United Kingdom . In addition, British Olympic teams use the name "Great Britain" or " Team GB " . [27] [28]
The adjective "British" is often used to refer to matters relating to Britain. Although "British" has no obvious legal implications, it is used by law in reference to matters relating to British citizenship and nationality . [29] The British people use a number of different terms to describe their nationality, and are themselves British , English , Scottish , Welsh , Northern Irish , Irish [30] . , Or both . [31]
2006, United Kingdom of passport ( English version ) new design has been introduced to. The first page of the new passport, English , Welsh , Scottish Gaelic has been described officially country name in [32] . The official name in Welsh is "Teyrnas Unedig Prydain Fawr a Gogledd Iwerddon", and the abbreviated name on the government website is "Teyrnas Unedig" [33] , but usually the inflected form "Y Deyrnas Unedig" "DU" is abbreviated as "DU". The official country name in Scottish Gaelic is "Rìoghachd Aonaichte Bhreatainn is Èireann a Tuath", and the abbreviated name is "Rìoghachd Aonaichte".
History [ edit ]
Main article: British history

Map based on Ptolemy 's Geography, showing Albion and Hibernia (now Ireland) characters

Jeanne d'Arc

The ancient Great Britain was called Albion . It has a Latin origin and is said to be derived from the white cliffs of Dover.
In 1066 Duke of Normandy was William the Conqueror (William the Conqueror) is conquered England , and advanced of the continent feudalism was introduced, the kingdom went established a system of. England overwhelmed by population and economic power dominated Wales and Scotland.
13 century, First Barons' War , the Second Baron war in France has been left and right of the political. In 1282, the Welsh region also had an English state system. France and over a period of 14-15 century war hundred years have deployed, but in 1373 the British葡permanent alliance signed a.
Wars of the Roses winners the morning Lancaster is clan of the Count of Holland in the Bavarian public to Wilhelm I was welcomed. In 1497, John Cabot discovered the North American coast. In 1514, an uncensored foreign merchant hikyaku was established. In 1534, the Supreme Law came out. Of 1536 and 1543 unified method under, it was formally annexed Scotland ( Wales Act laws ( in English ) ). In 1559, Christianity was united in the Church of England . In 1562, the Huguenot War broke out in France, and Huguenot moved. Exiles trench house in the UK clan cart Lee Earl became [34] . In 1588, he defeated Catholics in the battle of Armada . In 1598, the Hanseatic League base was closed in London.

Bank of England
In 1600, the British East India Company was formed. England and Scotland formed the Union in 1603 . And Henry Hudson and William Baffin has been active in the North American exploration. In 1620, the Pilgrim Fathers landed in North America, and Huguenot revolted in France. A petition for rights was made in 1628, and the following year Richelieu settled with Huguenot. In 1639-1640, England attempted two bishops' wars to force the State Church into the Kingdom of Scotland, but lost both. Turning the breach into the Kingdom of Ireland, Charles I , Oliver Cromwell , and William III were bullied until the end of the 17th century. Willem III is Louis XIV , supported by Huguenot that has been persecuted in, 1694 the Bank of England was established. In 1702, Huguenot Matthew Decker came to London. In 1704, they occupied Gibraltar and sealed Catholic power to the Mediterranean. Under the joint law of 1707, England and Scotland were united into Great Britain. PuritanAnd Huguenot set up a unified front against Catholic enemy. In many parts of the world within reach of the British Empire , conflicts continued in which religion and the economy were inseparable. They have always been dominant not only in the battle for colonies, but also in engineering interests in the Russian Empire and the United States. The industrial revolution in the textile industry provided a monopoly of currency to the United States , which exports cotton .

When Baron Northwick emerged from Huguenot , Britain was the star of the Great Alliance against France . The Alliance has won the Battle of Waterloo and the Napoleonic War has ended. Thus came the age of Pax Britannica .
And Gappo the Kingdom of Ireland jointly Act of 1801, became the Great Britain and Ireland the United Kingdom [35] . But the Irish Republican Army is alive. As for the unified front, the family and medal of George IV, the participation of Freemasonry , all were loot. The French king would not force Catholic again and there was no longer the Holy Roman Empire . Belgium became independent , won the Opium War , and the United Front focused on monopoly on railways and communications. But the Uniform Front had a habit of doing too much. Louis XVI Imawashiki the Edict of Fontainebleau was sufficient to ask destroyed. However, the French Revolution is Napoleon was threatening to the united front not only the Holy Roman allowed to rise to. It was also convenient for the supporting Prussian Kingdom to partner with Russia to attack the Ottoman Empire . But the Austro-Prussian war in the Kiel Canal or become likely to take the interests of, the Franco-Prussian war or south German Federal is a naught, the Ottoman Public Debt Administration of the interests ofThe Belgian unification front was bitten by a dog, even after being stolen by the German Empire .
The diplomatic policy called " Glory Isolation " was abandoned during Edward VII . 1902 in Japan with the British alliance has signed a. They turned Germany into an enemy in World War I and made debt slaves with significant reparations to the post-war Weimar Republic . However, Britain lagged behind Germany in its influence on the United States. In 1926, a Balfour report was filed. The British dominated Lazard , but not the Pacific . During the reign of George V of the Windsor dynasty, the Treaty of Love came into force in 1922 under the administration of David Lloyd George , and 26 states were free in Ireland except the six northern states (Northern Ireland; six of the nine Ulster states). Independent as a country (now the Republic of Ireland ), and in 1927 its current name is Great Britain and the United Kingdom of Northern Ireland.". In addition, residents vote to ask whether it should be independent Scotland is one of the country has been carried out in September 2014, but independence was rejected [36] . 1925 Trustee Act ( Trustee Act 1925 61st Article of), the court, Kimio and rational act, the trustee is a matter of course are exempt, empowered to exempt from the responsibility of trust violation was [37] [38] . None of this legislation the British Parliament , the Great Depression is investment trust there is a certain degree of responsibility to history was popularized through. The proportion of lower securities to total asset structure of the entire United Kingdom investment trusts, 36.2% in 1933, 42.0 percent in 1935, began to rise to 53.5% in 1938 [39] .
1939 of Adolf Hitler President of the Nazi Party led by Nazi Germany is Poland was invaded, France performs a declaration of war with, Battle of Britain at the beginning European front TaiDoku Italian war in, Pacific Ocean Front experienced the war in against Japan , of the United States Democratic Party Franklin Roosevelt President and the Atlantic Charter of the Conservative Party, which was proposed jointly by Winston Churchill by the government national unity government to give the victory to the bottom of the second world War later, British troops are in Germany Hamburg Ya Occupied Hanover and played a role in shaping the former West Germany . The United States occupied the former Southern German Federal Republic and western Austria . The Occupied Territories of the United States Netherlands are connected and the history, interwar periodEven worse, East and West European capitals were mixed up.
The British ruled over the United States in the political economy and many other areas since the beginning of the Cold War in 1945 . In opposition to the Soviet Union as one of the western nations of the capitalist and liberal camp , the Labor Party 's Clement Atley government created a welfare state with the slogan "From cradle to grave " . On the economic front, the Bank of England competed in a bargain over the Bretton Woods regime , suffering from the pound crisis in the 1960s and the secondary banking crisis in the 1970s, and suffering from a recession known as " British disease ." Industrial surface before the war General Electric in the Industrial Revolution had been deprived of the majesty of. Following Atley's departure, Churchill was replaced by the Conservative Party, and Churchill was reappointed as Prime Minister.
During World War II, the United Kingdom maintained a significant concession to India , the country with the largest population in the empire, to maintain multiple fronts in Europe and the Pacific and to maintain Indian post-war status in order to maintain castle peace. I had to do it. The British government approved the Indian Independence Law in 1947, and approved the independence of India and Pakistan, and in 1948, the independence of Ceylon ( Sri Lanka ). The Burma that was during the war under the rule of Japan, is seen confusion that Fukusuru under British rule in Murray, 1948 in Burma of (Myanmar) 1957 in Malaysia approved of independence.
1960 Upon entering the period in the French West Africa of independent request Africa to independence movement is activation of countries, 1960 in Nigeria is, 1962 in Uganda is, 1963 in Kenya is, 1964 in Malawi and Zambia from the United Kingdom Declared independence. Also in 1961 in South Africa is, 1966 in Rhodesia is apartheid was declared its independence from the United Kingdom for maintenance.
1956 in Egypt is the Suez Canal declared the nationalization of, United Kingdom for occupied the same area, France, Israel is fighting between the broke out. This is the Second Middle East War (Suez Crisis). Britain and France withdrew from Suez due to lack of international public support and lost interest in the Suez Canal linking the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea . Also it is independence movement stimulation even been in the Middle East encouraged by Egypt of action, 1971 in Bahrain , Qatar , the United Arab Emirates became independent from the United Kingdom.
Hong Kong is the only remaining British colony, but the new territory expires in 1984 between Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and the chairman of the Central Military Committee of the People's Republic of China in Kodaira. In 1997, it was returned to China all at once, including the ceded land. With the return of Hong Kong , Britain has lost almost all of its major colonies, and the British Empire, which straddled the seven seas of the world, has disappeared.
1964 to Harold Wilson was appointed to the prime minister, Labor Party to return to power in since Utley 13 years. 1969 in England , Wales , Scotland , in 1973 to Northern Ireland capital punishment in was abolished except for some exceptions. In addition, under the Wilson Labor government, abortion legalization of, death penalty abolition and institutional homosexual non-punishment of the ( sodomy law made social reforms, including the abolition of), currency pound devaluation of and, of Japan Open University of Policies such as the establishment of an open university , a communication-based public university that also became an imitation, were implemented.
Enacted in the 1980s the Conservative Party of Margaret Thatcher administration, neo-liberal due to structural reform ( neo-liberalism , Thatcherism based on privatization , administrative reform , deregulation by radical a) ( small government -oriented, night-watchman state ), Many unemployed . The local economy was extremely sluggish, and the financial industry grew mainly in London .
In the 1990s, the administration changed from Conservative John Major to Labor Tony Blair , and Britain moved to a `` third path ' ' that would revert to a once-heavy welfare state while revising its market- oriented policies . I decided to go on the route. In 1998, the Human Rights Act was enacted, and the death penalty system was completely abolished. Around this time, Britain has been in a boom for the first time in a long time, and the image strategy and cultural policy called “ Cool Britannia ” has been put into focus in order to dispel the image of the “grand power” .
In the 2000s and 2010s , entering the 21st century , the Labor Party Gordon Brown and the Conservative Party David Cameron followed.
Since 2014 , same-sex marriage has been legalized.
2016 June 23, the United Kingdom of the European Union withdrawal Come national referendum to ask is performed As a result, since the withdrawal pro accounted for majority with a narrow margin, United Kingdom of the European Union withdrawal (aka: Buregujitto, Brexit) has been determined .
Cameron and Conservative Party leaders have resigned, taking responsibility, and Tereza May takes office on July 13, 2016, as Thatcher's second British female PM and Conservative Party leader. did. The May administration has established a new European Union withdrawal ministry .
In the future, Britain will face a major issue of " Brexit", which is about "withdrawing from the European Union (EU) and what to do next."
Geography [ edit ]
Main article: Geography of the United Kingdom

British topographic map

Ben Nevis, the highest peak in the British Isles
The United Kingdom consists of England on Great Britain, Wales and Scotland, and Northern Ireland on the northeastern part of Ireland. These two large islands and the surrounding small and large islands are called Britain Islands . Great Britain is roughly divided into England, which occupies the central and southern parts, Scotland in the northern part, and Wales in the western part. The region excluding Ireland from Northern Ireland is the Republic of Ireland.
In addition to the border between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, Britain is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean , with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south . The Irish Sea is located between Great Britain and Ireland. The total area of the United Kingdom 243,610Km 2 is, world # 78 and Europe # 11 .
Most of England consists of rocky lowlands, mountainous areas in the northwest ( Cumbria Mountains in the Lake District ), northern areas (Peninsnes wetlands, limestone hills in the Peak District, valleys called Dale, Purbeck Island , From the limestone hills of Lincolnshire ) to the peaty North Downs, South Downs and Chiltern in southern England. The main rivers flowing in England are the Thames , Severn , Trent and Ouse . Major cities include London, Birmingham , York and Newcastle upon Tyne . Dover , south of England , has the English Channel tunnel , which communicates with France on the other side. There is no point in England above 1000m.
Wales is mountainous, with the highest peak being Snowdon, 1,085m above sea level . Anglesey is north of the mainland . The capital and largest city of Wales is Cardiff , located in South Wales.
Scotland is geographically diverse, with relatively low elevations in the south and east, and high elevations in the north and west, where Ben Nevis is located. Ben Nevis is the highest point in Britain at an altitude of 1343 m. Scotland has many peninsulas, bays and lakes called Loch, and Loch Ness , the largest freshwater lake in Great Britain, is also located in Scotland. In the western and northern waters, islands of various sizes, including the Hebrides , Orkney and Shetland, are distributed. The main cities in Scotland are the capitals Edinburgh , Glasgow and Aberdeen .
Northern Ireland occupies the northeastern part of Ireland Island and is mostly hilly. The central part is a plain, and Lake Ney , located almost in the center, is the largest lake in the British Isles. The main cities are Belfast and Delhi .
Currently Britain consists of about 1098 islands, large and small. Most are natural islands, but some are known as crannogs , man- made islands made of stone and wood in the past and gradually becoming larger with waste.
Most of the United Kingdom is occupied by rolling hills and plains, with about 90% of the country's territory habitable. As a result, the land area itself is about two-thirds of Japan ( combined with Honshu and Shikoku ), but the area of habitable land is almost twice that of Japan. The United Kingdom has less forests , and Japan has two thirds of its forests, while the United Kingdom has only about 11% of forests . [40]
Others, in the dispute ( English version ) of the Falkland Islands , Gibraltar , the Indian Ocean region , including the 14 overseas territories of having a [41] . Guernsey , Jersey , Isle of Man is not part of the United Kingdom, both the monarch of the United Kingdom as a monarch, the British government responsible for defense and international representation royal territories is a [42] .
Major cities [ edit ]
Main article: List of UK cities
The United Kingdom is made up of four independent states: England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. Each country has its own capital, London (England), Edinburgh (Scotland), Cardiff (Wales) and Belfast (Northern Ireland). London, the capital of England, is also the capital of the United Kingdom.
England's capital London, Europe second largest urban area and of Eurostat According to the European Union with about 14 million people of the population of the largest metropolitan area is an important world city and financial center is a [43] [44] .
The capitals of Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland are Cardiff, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively.

Population distribution (2011)
2019 Greenwich Peninsula & Canary Wharf.jpg
London Birmingham
Birmingham Skyline from Edgbaston Cricket Ground crop.jpg
#Name of a cityAdministrative divisionpopulation#Name of a cityAdministrative divisionpopulation Leeds CBD at night.jpg
Leeds Glasgow
Glasgow and the Clyde from the air (geograph 4665720) .jpg
Major cities in the UK
1 England flag England8,908,081 people11 England flag England366,785
Two England flag England1,141,374 people12 Welsh flag Welsh362,800 people
Three England flag England789,19413 Northern Ireland Flag Northern Ireland340,200
Four Scottish flag Scotland626,41014 England flag England329,839
Five England flag England582,506 people15 England flag England321,500
6 England flag England547,627 people16 England flag England300,196 people
7 England flag England537,17317 England flag England263,100
8 England flag England494,814 people18 England flag England262,008 people
9 Scottish flag Scotland488,050 people19 England flag England260,645
Ten England flag England463,40020 England flag England255,833 people

The fourth and lower urban populations are narrowly different and their rankings are likely to change. Since 2006, London, Birmingham, Leeds, Glasgow, and Sheffield have been ordered.
Climate [ edit ]
Britain's climate is dominated by two factors. First, it is under the influence of the North Atlantic Current, which is a warm current derived from the Gulf Stream , so it is warm despite high latitudes of 50 to 60 ° N, and it is strongly affected by mid-latitude westerly winds. . From the above, the western coastal marine climate (Cfb) is dominant. There is no continental climate and the yearly temperature range is small.
The effects of the Gulf Stream are strong in winter. Especially in the west, the decrease in temperature is suppressed, and the temperature depends on the distance from the west coast. In summer, latitude and temperature become more closely related, with relatively high temperatures in the east. Since the eastern part becomes hot in summer, when the amount of water transpiration is high, the eastern part becomes relatively dry and the west part becomes moist throughout the year.
Precipitation trends are also affected by the Gulf Stream. In the east, precipitation is averaged throughout the year and rainfall is low per day. Fog is likely to occur in winter, especially on days where wind speeds cannot be observed. London is a city where this trend is strongly applicable. In the west, precipitation can exceed 2500 mm.
The capital London has an average annual temperature of 12.8 degrees, the average temperature in January is 6.7 degrees, the average temperature in July is 19.5 degrees [45] , and the average annual rainfall is 750.6 mm.
Politics [ edit ]

Westminster Palace used by the British Parliament as a parliament building
For details, see " British politics ", " Constitution of the United Kingdom ", " English law ", and the " Anglo-American law referring to the"
Regime is parliamentary system was based on the constitutional monarchy has been governed on the basis of the [46] [47] , the monarch (United Kingdom Queen) 1952 February is since 6 days Elizabeth II. The British Constitution is an unwritten, unwritten constitution that includes statutes (including not only parliamentary statutes but also contracts between kings and aristocrats such as Magna Carta ), case law , historical documents and customs. The law (called constitutional discipline) constitutes the constitution. These are flexible constitutions , as they can be amended by Congress like any other law . One of the customary laws that make up the constitution is that the king reigns but does not rule, and the authority of the queen (king) is extremely ceremonial. Thus, constitutional monarchy and legalism are laid from the earliest stage in the world, and democracy built in tradition can be seen. In addition, parliamentarianism with the superiority of legislative power is developing, and the parliamentary cabinet system and the political party system ( multiple party system)) Are the countries where the democracy systems adopted by many nations originated.
Legislative power is exercised by Congress , administrative power is exercised by the Prime Minister and the Cabinet , and judicial power is exercised by the British Supreme Court and lower courts :
The British Parliament has a two- member system , the Senate ( Noble House ) and the House ( General House ) . The parliamentary law (a component of the Constitution) enacted in 1911 defines "superiority in the lower house." Under the Parliamentary Cabinet System, the Prime Minister, the head of the administration, is appointed by the King as the first party leader (Representative) in accordance with constitutional rules, and cabinet members are elected from members of both the Upper and Lower Houses of Parliament. The House of Representatives is elected by direct election ( universal election ) using the simple constituency system , while the Senate is unofficial and appointed. In recent years, conventional right-wing Conservative Party and the left wing by the Labor Party of the two-party system , but came However, in recent years of the third force Liberal Democratic Party (formerly the Liberal Party has also expanded force of inherited political parties).
Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland is different from each other has been delegated the authority ( in English ) has the administration [48] [49] [50] , the 1996 Northern Ireland Assembly , in 1999 Scottish Parliament and the Welsh Assembly Was set up and self-government began. Scotland has a Scottish Independence Movement, mainly by the Scottish Nationalist Party , and Northern Ireland also has Northern Ireland issues, which have been around since the 20th century . 2016 June referendum to ask the withdrawal from the European Union in become a majority vote, the integration of the continent since the EEC membership in 1973 has closed the curtain ( Buregujitto ). In response, Prime Minister Cameron was replaced by Prime Minister May.
Current monarch [ edit ]
Successive generationsNameBritishbirthThroneReign periodrelationship

4th Windsor Morning
Queen Elizabeth II March 2015.jpg Elizabeth IIElizabeth IIApril 21, 1926 (93 years old)February 6, 195267, 341 daysKing George VI's eldest daughter
Local administrative divisions [ edit ]

Scottish Capitol
Main article: British local administrative divisions
The United Kingdom's local administrative system differs in each of the following regions:
Other territories that are not included in the United Kingdom, but for which the United Kingdom is responsible for its international relations, are overseas territories and royal territories .
Diplomacy and military [ edit ]

2017 January 27 , immediately after the inaugural Donald Trump US President and the White House to meet with Theresa May British Prime Minister (left)
Main article: British international relations and British troops
UK during the period from the 19th century to the first half of the 20th century, the world's highest powers was [51] [52] . Also currently powers be continued, economic, cultural, military, science, international politics has an influence [53] [54] [55] .
Like the United Nations during the interwar period , since 1946, the United Nations Security Council has been a permanent member of the Council , with G7, G8 , G20 , NATO , European Council , OECD , WTO , Member of the EU . It has a historical " special relationship " with the United States . In addition to the United States and Europe, the Imperial Japanese Navy of the Taisho era (now the Maritime Self-Defense Force ) was heavily influenced by the British Navy 's tradition, as it was a friendly ally that had a Japanese- English alliance with Japan until the 1920s. While developed. Close allies with the United Kingdom are the Commonwealth and other English speaking countriesIncluding the state. Britain's global presence and influence are magnified through its complementarities and military capabilities. [56] It is manifested in maintaining approximately 80 military bases and military deployments around the world . Military spending in 2011 remained at a steady $ 62.7 billion.

Guards in the march ceremony
The British army is known as the "British Army" [57] or the "Majesty's Army" [58] . However, in formal occasions "Armed Four Seeds Of The Crown" [59] is referred to as the [60] (Crown crown, meaning crown). The Commander-in-Chief of the entire army is a British monarch, but that is only nominal, and the Prime Minister has de facto control. Day-to-day military control is performed by the Defense Committee, which is set up by the Defense Ministry .
The British army is more extensive than any other army in the world and is one of the largest military powerhouses with global projectile capabilities, with military spending second in the world according to the Pentagon . As of 2008, military expenditures accounted for 2.5% of GDP . [61] The British have been tasked with protecting the future national interests of Britain worldwide and supporting international peacekeeping operations while defending the British homeland and overseas territories.
As of 2005, the Army had 102,440 troops, the Air Force 49,210, and the Navy ( including the Marines ) 36,320, with 190,000 British troops serving more than 80 countries. , Arranged [62] .
UK nuclear weapons is one of five countries that have been granted possession of, military spending is world's fifth largest or # 6 ( English ) is a [63] [64] . It operates a Trident II submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) with a nuclear warhead . The Royal Navy is on a nuclear deterrent mission on four nuclear submarines equipped with Trident II .
" Weapons of mass destruction of the United Kingdom See also"
Despite the British Army of the wide range of activities capacity, even in the recent affairs of state specific national defense policy is based on the assumption that undertake the most demanding mission at the time of cooperative strategy [65] . The last war the British troops fought alone was the Falkland War , with full fighting lasting a full three months. At present , it is customary to conduct allied operations with the U.S. military and NATO nations, such as the Bosnian conflict , the Kosovo conflict , the invasion of Afghanistan , and the Iraq war . The British Marines, a light infantry unit of the Royal Navy, are primarily responsible for amphibious operations , but in order to support the British government's foreign policy, they can use the characteristics of the light infantry unit to quickly deploy overseas. have.
Economy [ edit ]
Main article: British economy
According to the IMF , Britain's GDP in 2015 was $ 2.858 trillion, ranking fifth in the world and second only to Germany in Europe . [66] That year's GDP per capita was $ 43,902 . [66] Human Development Index is 14th in the world are classified as "very high" in.

London was ranked first in the world in the 2016 Global City Comprehensive Power Rankings. [67]
Capital London is at 2016 New York has been rated as the world's largest financial center in excess of [68] . The City of London is home to the London Stock Exchange , one of the world's leading stock exchanges . United Kingdom of the foreign exchange market the average daily trading value of greater than the United States, the world's largest [69] . The wealthy population is very large, with an estimated 410,000 wealthy households with financial assets of over $ 1 million, ranking fourth behind the United States, Japan and China . [70] It is estimated that 1,125 ultra-rich households with more than $ 100 million in financial assets are the second largest after the United States . [70]
Since the industrial revolution in the 18th century , it has been a world- leading industrial nation in the modern era, with a wide range of industries ranging from heavy industries such as shipbuilding and aircraft manufacturing to finance and entertainment industries. Historically, the shipbuilding industry is worthy of special mention, three-stage expansion engine from appeared until the First World War broke out was to produce a three-minutes of two of the world's ship [71] .
However, since the late 19th century, industrialization of the United States and the German Empire lost its world dominance. Global financial capital, including the United Kingdom, preferred investment in Germany, the United States and colonies over investment in British manufacturing. The British manufacturing industry is increasingly falling behind Germany, France and the United States. By the turn of the century, national power had begun to decline, and the two world wars had put a heavy burden on the British economy. Economic power declined further in the late 1960s, when colonies were almost completely independent.
Keynote of the post-war economic policy is to take advantage of both the market and the state-owned sector mixed economy becomes a system, Labor Party of the left wing of the " cradle-to-grave focus on improvement of public welfare, which is referred to as a", also close to this basically Conservative Party Following policy, it became one of the world's leading welfare states in the 1960s . However, the company did not take any practical measures against the recession triggered by the oil crisis , resulting in a continuous recession, and a series of corporate bankruptcies and strikes. The British economy, which has been stagnant since the early 20th century, has become severely impoverished and has been dubbed " British disease ."
Under the Thatcher administration, which appeared in 1979, the privatization of state-owned enterprises and the relaxation of various regulations were promoted, and in the late 1980s foreign direct investment and securities investment expanded. During this process, workers in the manufacturing and mining sectors were fired in large numbers, causing serious unemployment. Most of the key industries, the automobile industry, have fallen under the umbrella of foreign companies.However, the expansion of foreign investment has gradually led to the revitalization of local industries and the increase of employment. ( Wimbledon phenomenon ).
Later, with the success of the Blair administration's economic policies that emerged in 1997, the economy recovered and began to enjoy a boom ahead of the United States and other European countries. Left behind by economic development , problems such as widening the gap between rich and poor and rising real estate prices are emerging.
In addition, financial instability increased in 2008 due to the effects of the U.S. subprime mortgage crisis , and a surge in resources and food hit the country, saying Treasury Minister Alistair Darling said, "Probably the worst in 60 years. It has revealed a very pessimistic outlook and "is facing a downturn [72] . 2012 unemployment rate in February has been a state that has deteriorated to more than 8%, then is showing signs of recovery.
Mining [ edit ]

North Sea Oil Field
In the UK mining industry, coal, which supported the industrial revolution, is famous. With more than 300 years of coal mining history, the coal industry has a longer history than any other country. As of 2002, it still mined 31.93 million tons, but imported almost the same amount of coal. Crude oil extraction from the North Sea oil field amounts to 110 million tonnes, which represents 3.2% of the world market share. The most important energy resource is natural gas , which accounts for 4.3% (fourth) of the world market share. Other than organic minerals, there are potassium salt (KCl), which is the eighth largest in the world, and salt (NaCl), which is the tenth . We are not blessed with metal minerals. The largest lead ore is 1000 tons.
Agriculture [ edit ]
It is the earliest industrialized country and is still highly industrialized. The importance of agriculture continues to decline, with agriculture's share of GDP falling below 2%. However, there are eight agricultural products that are within the world's top ten. For grain, barley (5.68 million tons, 10th in global market share, as of 2004), for industrial crops, flax (26,000 tons, 5th), sugar beet (7.9 million tons, 9th), rape (1.73 million tons, 5th) Hop ) (2600 tons, 6th). For livestock and livestock products, sheep (35.5 million, 7th), wool (65,000 tons, 5th), and milk (14.8 million tons, 9th) are the mainstays.
Trade [ edit ]
Britain has benefited greatly from free trade since the Industrial Revolution. However, in the early 21st century, the proportion of trade has declined. In 2004, the dependence on trade, that is, the ratio of imports and exports to gross domestic product, was the lowest among European countries along with Italy . That is, exports are 16.1% and imports are 21.3%.
According to the United Nations ' International Trade Statistics Yearbook 2003, manufactured goods account for less than 80% of both exports and imports. For exports, electrical machinery (15.2%, 2003), machinery, automobiles, pharmaceuticals, and crude oil; for imports, electrical machinery (16.3%), automobiles, machinery, clothing, and pharmaceuticals.
The regional composition of trading partners is similar to Germany, the largest industrialized country in Europe, for both exports and imports. Imports and exports account for over 50% of the EU. In terms of exports, the EU accounted for 53.4% (2003), followed by the United States at 15.0% and Asia at 12.1%, and imports at the EU at 52.3%, Asia at 15.1% and the United States at 9.9%.
By country, the major export destinations are the United States (15.0%, 2003), Germany (10.4%), France (9.4%), the Netherlands (5.8%), and Ireland (6.5%). Import destinations are Germany (13.5%), United States (9.9%), France (8.3%), Netherlands (6.4%), and People's Republic of China (5.1%).
Real estate [ edit ]
In British real estate, about 25,000 aristocrats and large companies, about 1% of the population, hold 48% of the land in England, and undeclared land is considered to be land that the nobleman secretly managed between families Have been.
Bank managers and oligarchy17
public agency8.5
Mercy groupTwo
Royal family1,4
England Church0.5
Energy policy [ edit ]
"For more information United Kingdom of energy ( in English ) refers to the"
By actively promoting investment and technical cooperation of the People's Republic of China for the nuclear power generation in the UK, we are working to strengthen the energy policy and economic force [73] . In 2016, it approved the construction of the reactor due to investment from China [74] .
Currency [ edit ]
Although a member of the EU, the currency is Sterling Pound (GBP) rather than Euro . The auxiliary unit is a penny, which is 100 pence per pound since 1971. Pounds were once used as an international settlement currency due to the economic power of the British Empire before the US dollar was used as a settlement currency worldwide. Along with the European Union of the United Kingdom, but whether or not the United Kingdom to participate in the euro is a common European currency became the focus, many opposed to the UK, monetary union has been shelved. The Bank of England is the United Kingdom's central bank , but in Scotland and Northern Ireland, local commercial banks also issue their own banknotes. Queen Elizabeth is imprinted on the Bank of England's banknotes and is common throughout the United Kingdom. Both Scottish and Northern Irish notes are accepted in the United Kingdom, but may be refused. 2016 June 24, the withdrawal of the European Union which joined in 1993 (EU) has formally decided by national referendum.
Companies [ edit ]
Main article: List of UK companies
Communication [ edit ]
Main article: Information and communications in the UK ( English )
In the UK, SIM cards can be purchased at vending machines at Heathrow Airport and elsewhere . It is a prepaid system, and charges and calls are used at supermarkets.
Main carrier
  • Vodafone UK
  • Capital merged with Orange France T-Mobile (UK)
  • EE (former T-Mobile brand) Capital merger with Germany Orange (UK)
  • O2 Spain Telefonica
  • 3 (Three) Hong Kong
Traffic [ edit ]
"For more information United Kingdom of traffic ( in English ) refers to the"
Roads [ edit ]
Main article: Roads in the UK ( English )
The car is on the left . Many former British colonies, such as India, Australia, Hong Kong and Singapore , have left-hand traffic.
Railway [ edit ]
"For more information British railway see"

International train Eurostar is the departure station of St. Pancras Station
It is the birthplace of modern railways and has a rail network throughout the country. London and other cities have 14 subway (tube train) networks. However, since the 1960s, accidents have occurred frequently due to the aging of facilities, and there have been many problems such as the delay in operation becoming habitual.
Born as a collection of regional routes operated by small private regional railways, the British railways remained relatively small in the 19th and early 20th centuries , mainly through the acquisition of competitors. Finally in 1921 London, Midland and Scottish Railway , London and North Eastern Railway , the Great Western Railway , Southern Railway unity in the four major railway company, they are nationalized in 1948 British Rail ( BR). But 19941997 BR in, and passenger transport and freight transport, is divided the facilities such as lines and stations in the department of collective management was privatized.
Opened in 1994, the British Channel Strait Tunnel, owned by the United Kingdom and France, consists of three parallel tunnels running from the Folkestone in England to Calais in France, running 130 feet on the English Channel and 50.5 km in length. One is dedicated to freight and the other two are used to transport passengers, cars and cargo. Through this tunnel, St. Pancras Station runs Eurostar to and from the European continent, and to major European cities such as Paris , Brussels and Lille .
Shipping [ edit ]
Surrounded by the sea and having colonies around the world, it is an old shipping nation and has many shipping companies such as P & O and Cunard Line . In addition, a history on the famous " Titanic and," " Queen Elizabeth 2 ", " Queen Mary 2 has been operating the famous cruise ships, such as".
Aviation [ edit ]
Main article: British airlines ( English )

Heathrow Terminal 5 London . London Heathrow Airport is the international use of the number of customers is the world's premier in.

British Airways (largest airline in the UK)

Civil aviation has evolved since ancient times, and international expansion in particular has been emphasized as a link between colonies around the world.
Currently, there are airlines such as British Airways , Virgin Atlantic and EasyJet . Among them, British Airways, British Overseas Airways Corporation and British European Airways two state-owned company was founded through the merger, in 2009 in Spain of the largest airlines in the world, which was privatized in 1987 Iberia integrated with Agreed, establishing International Airlines Group in 2011 .
The aircraft manufacturer also has BAE Systems and Rolls-Royce Holdings , an engine manufacturer, and in 1976, together with France, developed a Concorde aircraft and launched the world's first supersonic passenger transport service. However, due to aging and high costs, the service ended on November 26, 2003, and Concord disappeared from the sky.
Major airports include London Heathrow, Gatwick and Stansted , as well as Luton , Manchester and Glasgow .
According to the 2016 Summer Schedule with Japan, the British Airways operates only one direct flight per day between Heathrow Airport and Narita Airport , and also between Haneda Airport , British Airways, Japan Airlines and All Nippon Airways. Operate one direct flight each day. Formerly served by Virgin Atlantic, but withdrew in 2015.
Science and technology [ edit ]
Main article: British science and technology ( English )
England and Scotland were the scientific revolutions of the 17th century, and England was the center of the industrial revolution of the 18th century. It has produced many scientists and engineers who have contributed to important developments. Isaac Newton , Charles Darwin , electromagnetic wave James Clark Maxwell , and more recently the space-related Stephen Hawking . Science on the important of hydrogen to the discoverer Henry Cavendish , penicillin of Alexander Fleming , DNA of Francis Crick there are. In terms of engineering, such as Graham Bell . The research and application of science continues to be an important mission of the university, with scientific papers published by the United Kingdom in the five years since 2004 accounting for 7% of the world. Academic journal nature and medical journal lancet are world famous.
National [ Edit ]
"More British " and " the UK population statistics ( English version ) see"
" United Kingdom of ethnic ( English version ) See also"

British Population Pyramid
The UK population was estimated at 64.71 million in 2015, making it the 22nd largest in the world .
There is no "British" ethnic group. The main ethnic groups living in the center of the England Germanic tribes England's system ( Anglo-Saxon ), Celtic Scottish-based, Irish, but Welsh, the former colonial native of India-based ( Shirushi僑 ), African It is a multi-ethnic nation with many Caribbean, Arab, and Chinese families .
British nationality law divides its citizens, including those related to former colonies, into six categories:
Depending on which status you belong to, there may be differences in various handlings in Japan, and since the classification is clearly indicated on your passport, handling may differ depending on the partner country when traveling abroad. For example, if you want to enter Japan, British citizen (home country people) and the British National (Overseas) (British nationality Hong Kong people) is if short visit purpose visa becomes a (visa) unnecessary, of the remaining four a few days sightseeing visit to Japan Even so, you need a visa.
Language [ edit ]
Main article: English language ( English )

English-speaking regions of the world . Dark blue indicates regions where English is the official or de facto official language. Light blue areas where English is the official language but not the main language.
The de facto official language is English (British English), which is the most widely used, but is primarily Cornwall in England, in Cornish , Welsh in the northern and central parts of Wales, and Scotland in the Roland region . Scottish, Scottish Gaelic in some parts of the Hebrides, Ulster Scottish and Irish in some parts of Northern Ireland are the official languages of each member state.
In particular, Welsh became the official language in Wales in 1993 and gained the legal status equivalent to English. As of 2001, approximately 20% of the Welsh population speaks Welsh, a small but increasing proportion. All official documents and road signs are written in both Welsh and English. Welsh is a compulsory subject in compulsory education up to the age of 16, and many schools use Welsh as their primary language of education and treat English as a second language.
Religion [ edit ]
" United Kingdom of religion See also"
According to the census of the British government, which once carried out in the 10 years, 2001, Christians 71.7% Muslim 3.0%, Hindu adversary is 1.0%. In 2011, Christian 59.3%, Muslim 4.8%, Hindus 1.5% [75] .
The breakdown of Christianity is estimated at around 62% for Anglican churches , 13% for Catholics , 6% for Presbyterians, and 3% for Methodists . [76]
Marriage [ edit ]
At the time of marriage, any of the same family name, compound family name, and married family name can be selected. The same-sex marriage is also possible [77] . It is also possible to register for same-sex marriage at the British Embassy in Japan . [78] [79]
Emigration [ edit ]
"For more immigrants in the contemporary United Kingdom ( English ) " and " foreign-born persons in the United Kingdom ( in English ) refers to the"
[icon] It is hoped that this section will be revised .
Education [ edit ]
Main article: Education in the UK
Elementary school education starts in the UK at the age of five, although school education in the UK depends on the region and whether it is public or private.
Medical [ edit ]
Main article: Healthcare in the UK

The Royal Aberdeen Children's Hospital. NHS Scotland Children's Hospital
British health care is decentralized in each region , with public and private health care. Public health care is provided to all English nationals by the National Health Service (NHS), treatments with medical needs are largely free of charge, and costs are funded by general tax revenues ( public health care ). . The NHS has invested 25.2% of the UK national budget . [80]
Regulations relating to the entire country, comprehensive medical Council ( English version ) and nursing midwifery council ( English version ) and, also the Royal College outside organizations such as have done. However, policy and operational responsibilities are the responsibility of each of the four queens, the governments of Her Majesty, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. Each operated by NHS has a respective policies and priorities, and making a difference in the administration [81] [82] .
The UK spends 8.5% of GDP on healthcare, -0.5% compared to the OECD average and -1% compared to the EU average . [83] The rise in health spending in 1979 is approaching the EU average . [84] WHO is 15 place in Europe in the UK of the health care system in 2000, it has likened the 18 in the world [85] [86] .
Culture [ edit ]
"For more information : Culture of the United Kingdom en see."
Food culture [ edit ]
Main article: British cuisine
Famous for their fish and chips , roast beef , and eel jelly .
[icon] It is hoped that this section will be revised .
Literature [ edit ]

William Shakespeare
Main article: British literature
William Shakespeare , who has left many masterpieces for posterity, is said to be an unprecedented poet and playwright representing the British Renaissance drama . Jeffrey of Monmouth , Jeffrey Chaucer , and Thomas Mallory were well-known early British literature . In the 18th century, Samuel Richardson appeared. Since his work met the basic conditions of three novels: "fiction and narrative, relationships between humans (affection, marriage, etc.), personality and psychology of individuals," he said, He is called the father of modern novels.
In the early 19th century, romantic poets such as William Blake and William Wordsworth were active. In the 19th century, novels were revolutionized, with Jane Austen , Sister Bronte , Charles Dickens and Thomas Hardy . The end of the 19th century, aestheticism of Oscar Wilde , the modern mystery novel creator of Arthur Conan Doyle appeared.
As we enter the 20th century, you 'll find Herbert George Wells , the father of science fiction , David Herbert Lawrence , Virginia Wolf , a prophet George Orwell , and Agatha Christie, the queen of mysteries, who explore modernism . In recent years, Harry Potter series of J · K · rolling is former J · R · R · Tolkien are popular wowed all over the world, such as.
Philosophy [ edit ]
"For more information United Kingdom of philosophy ( in English ) refers to the"
[icon] It is hoped that this section will be revised .
Music [ edit ]
Main article: British music
Notable British composers in classical music include "The Father of Britannian Music" William Bird , Henry Purcell , Edward Elgar , Arthur Sullivan , Leif Vaughan Williams , and Benjamin Britten . Especially during the late 18th and 19th centuries, when classical and romantic groups flourished in the European continent, there were few powerful composers.However, due to the strong economic power, the music market continued to prosper, and London continued to prosper. Now remains as one of the capitals of classical music. In contrast to the German orchestra, which is based on a four-tube full organization in regional and regional cities, the London's five major orchestras , except for the BBC Symphony Orchestra (now also the London Symphony Orchestra ) , have a medium-sized organization of 70 members in total. In spite of the practice of temporarily recruiting free players when performing large songs, it has maintained a reasonable global reputation. At one time, members were shared and criticized for his frequent work in film music, but due to his rationalism, he continues to be the best classical performance city, at least in the English-speaking world. The opera houses the Royal Opera House of Covent Garden in London and the English National Opera , the latter being an unusual English-language staging organization.
Popular music [ edit ]

"For more information rock (music) " and " British rock ( in English ) refers to the"
In popular music (especially rock music), Britain is world-famous as a source of cutting-edge culture. Rock was born in the 1960s and 70s, and rock and roll influenced bands such as the Beatles and Rolling Stones were among the pioneers of that expression. Eventually King Crimson and Pink Floyd , such as progressive rock and, queen , cream , Led Zeppelin , Deep Purple , Black Sabbath , such as R & B and hard rock is contributing to the lock of the update. With the rise of punk rock in the late 1970s, sex pistols , The Crash, and others led to a national movement centered on London, incorporating cultures from the United States and New York .
Punk rock and later the center in the indie rock New Wave new trend is born, such as, techno pop with the development of drag music culture New Order , The Stone Roses , grid , etc., in the main stream Duran Renowned bands such as Durand and Depeche Mode were born. In the 90's Britpop and electronica became popular around the world from Britain, and oasis , blur , Radiohead , Prodigy and Massive Attack were especially remarkable. Many innovative music genres have also appeared, such as shoegazers , trip hops , and big beats . In recent years, Amy Winehouse , McFly , Coldplay , Spice GirlsThey became famous for the pop scene.
In the UK, popular music such as rock and pop is a major foreign currency acquisition business with a large market not only in Japan but also around the world. Its importance is high. With the United States as the headquarters of culture, it has maintained its global influence, and has pioneered the tide of the popular music industry in other countries in recent years.
Movie [ edit ]
Main article: British films
[icon] It is hoped that this section will be revised .
Comedy [ edit ]
British people are said to have a good sense of humor. Many comedians are also highly educated.
National flower [ edit ]
Each region has a national flower .
World Heritage [ edit ]
In the UK, UNESCO of world heritage cultural heritage that has been registered in the list is 21, there are five natural heritage. For more information, see UK World Heritage .
Holidays [ edit ]
Holidays may vary by the governments of England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. From the fact that many companies such as banks is the rest, the national holidays Bank holiday ( Bank Holiday referred to as a) (bank holiday).
dateJapanese notationLocal language notationRemarks
January 1 dayNew Year's DayNew Year's Day
January 2 daysNext day-Scotland only
March 17St. Patrick's DaySt. Patrick's DayNorthern Ireland only
March AprilGood FridayGood FridayHoliday
March AprilEaster MondayEaster MondayHoliday
First Monday of MayMay festivalEarly May Bank HolidayHoliday
Last Monday of MayEnd of May FestivalSpring Bank HolidayHoliday
July 12Boyne River Battle AnniversaryBattle of the Boyne (Orangemen's Day)Northern Ireland only
First Monday of AugustSummer Bank HolidaySummer Bank HolidayTravel holidays, Scotland only
Last Monday of AugustSummer Bank HolidaySummer Bank HolidayTravel holidays, excluding Scotland
December 25ChristmasChristmas Day
December 26Boxing DayBoxing Day
  • Travel holidays except Good Friday are basically set on Mondays.
  • Two days after Boxing Day were bank holidays but were abolished last in 2005.
Sports [ edit ]
Main article: British sports ( English )

Wembley Stadium
Britain is an area where many sports such as soccer , rugby , cricket , golf , and boxing originated or were developed as modern sports, and have become a national sport. The annual crowd mobilization of soccer, which attracts more than 40 million people, is far behind, followed by 6 million horse racing , 3 million Union Rugby and 2 million cricket.
Of these, group ball games (soccer, rugby, cricket) are traditionally considered in the region of origin, but are not limited to the United Kingdom alone in international competition groups, but are four regions of England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland (rugby is summarized in Ireland). Although they have accepted their membership, they have not played in the Modern Olympics , where soccer is an official program, as a single nation is the rule of thumb. However, at the London Olympics, which was decided to be held in 2012, the four associations entered as a unified United Kingdom representative. It is the first time in 64 years since 1948 that the Olympic Games have been held in London, the British capital . However, in baseball , he has been sending a unified national team to the European Baseball Championships and the WBC as a British national team.
Soccer [ edit ]
Main article: English football ( English version )
Soccer is particularly popular in Britain, where many sports were born. In the UK, soccer is called " football ", and since it has established modern rules, it is called " home of modern football ", and each region has its own soccer association. The UK has independent soccer leagues, with the English Premier League being particularly popular worldwide. All regional associations in the UK, including the English Football Association (FA), have started earlier than the International Football Federation (FIFA), and are the only exceptional FIFA member states that are allowed to join on a regional basis within the country. (The FIFA has since approved regional associations that have certain autonomous territories, such as overseas territories). For this reason, various international competitions ( FIFA World Cup , UEFA European Championship , UEFA Champions League , UEFA Cup , FIFA U-20 World Cup and UEFA U-21 European Championships organized by FIFA and the European Football Federation (UEFA)Clubs and national teams at the regional association level, and one of the seven FIFA vice presidents is selected from the four mainland British associations to play football rules and important In terms of matters, it has been given a privileged position, as determined by the International Football Council , made up of FIFA and the four mainland British associations . Soccer players and coaches can also become one-of-a-kind knights and commanders for their outstanding achievements in professional sports (such as David Beckham , Steven Gerrard , Bobby Robson , and Alex Ferguson ).
Also, soccer was originally established as a modern sport at a public school where middle class teachers and students attend, as in rugby , but the process has evolved into working class entertainment. It should be noted, however, that the proportion of the working-class population from the ongoing recession in Britain at that time and that other classes were watching. The working class may have favored soccer over rugby because of the less favorable violent fans of hooligans . However, the government, which saw a series of incidents and accidents involving Hooligans seriously, enacted the Hooligan Regulation Law in the 1980s and drastically revised stadium safety standards. Match management staff at each stadium has installed surveillance cameras throughout the stadium to strictly monitor specific advocates (hooligans) and restrict admission. As a result of such efforts, the number of incidents and accidents related to hooligans that had frequently occurred in the stadium has been greatly reduced.
Cricket [ edit ]
Cricket is played on an all-turf field, with tee times during the game . It is also called "gentleman's sport" because of its elegant atmosphere. In the UK, the upper class is a sport that enjoys the sport, and cricket is a compulsory discipline in prestigious schools such as Eaton . First played in southern England in the 16th century. By the end of the 18th century, it had grown into an English national sport. Cricket was played abroad with the expansion of the British Empire, and by the mid-19th century the first international games were held. England is a full member of the International Cricket Council (ICC). Cricket World Cup is FIFA World Cup and the Summer Olympics is a large sporting event of the number of viewers in the third in the world after [88] , the country held 2019 in the tournament England was the first victory [89] . The Women's England national team has won four World Cup titles. The Rose Cricket Ground in London is called the cricket sanctuary, hosting the World Cup finals and other events. Domestic league is County ChampionshipThere are 17 clubs in England and one club in Wales, a total of 18 clubs.
Horse racing [ edit ]
Main article: Horse racing in the UK
It is also the birthplace of modern horse racing. A jockey club was formed as a sports organization after 18th century golf, and at the same time a thoroughbred was formed. If anything, disabled races are more active than flatland races . In the "Favourite 100 Horses", disabled horses, including Arkur , dominated the top. The Cheltenham Festival and Grand National Meetings with Disabilities have an audience of 150,000 to 250,000. In particular, the largest race, the G3 Grand National , had sales of nearly 70 billion yen, making it the world's largest betting ticket race as of 2007. The flatland race is known for holding the Royal Ascot , held by the British Derby and the Royal Family , and also attracts 140,000 to 250,000 spectators. Derby is almost always the country's best known race, with races bearing this race already present in the countries where horse racing is taking place. Queen Elizabeth is also known as a horse racing fan and has several racehorses.
In the UK, unlike Japan and other countries, not only specific sports such as horse racing, but also all sports are subject to gambling, but sales are still mostly horse racing and soccer. Horse racing had been losing popularity since the 1970s, but the number of spectators has recently tended to recover. Sales exceed 2 trillion yen, and sales per population are second only to Australia except Hong Kong. However, there is a structural problem in that most of the sales (97.1% in 2003) are occupied by bookmakers that are not affiliated with the organizer . It should be noted that the British usually built a racetrack in any small colony, so even after independence, the former British territory is still very active in horse racing. In addition, Equestrian is also a thriving, equestrian of badminton, it is attendance of more than 15 million people in three days.
Motor sports [ edit ]
Britain is also known as the birthplace of motor sports . Formula 1 (F1) has produced many champion drivers. In recent years, 2009 world champion Jenson Button , and 2008, 2014, 2015, 2017, 2018, 2019, six-time world champion Lewis Hamilton is shining, if a world champion once more, Michael Schumacher with the It will be in line with the record of 7 degrees.
In the past, lots of prestigious racing teams, such as Lotus and Tyrrell , still McLaren and Williams, were based and are always at the forefront of vehicle design and manufacturing.
The event has a long history, and the British Grand Prix , first held in 1926, is one of the oldest. The F1 Grand Prix, which started in 1950, took the British Grand Prix as the first round. The Rally Great Britain, which is part of the World Rally Championship (launched in 1933), is one of the oldest events in the series.
Baseball [ edit ]
Main article: National league (British baseball)
Although less well-known, the baseball league called the British Baseball League was born in 1890 . IBAF World Cup of the first Annual Meeting in, there was in the form that the two countries compete against the United States, the tournament 5 round system wins at 4 wins and 1 loss, has become the first winner countries. 2012 In September, 3rd WBC has competed in the qualifying.
Curling [ edit ]
Little known, Britain is also a curling powerhouse. [90]
Cycling [ edit ]
Although its popularity in Japan is inferior to that of soccer, it is a powerful country in the world of road racing and track racing that is on par with France , Spain and Italy . In 2012, Bradley Wiggins won the Tour de France for the first time as a British in the road race , Chris Flume won the overall championship in 2013, 2015-2017 and Vuelta in 2017. In recent years, he has been remarkably active as he won A España , Giro de Italia in 2018, and became the third player in history to win the Grand Tour , the world's three major tournament in a row over the years. . Even in track race Wiggins and Geraint Thomas , Ed Clancy et al. World Championships and the Olympic Games have won a number of medals in.
Footnotes [ edit ]
[ Help ]
  1. ^ a bCountries within a country ”. Prime Minister's Office. Retrieved January 10, 2003 .
  2. ^ In addition to the one adopted by NHK , in principle, the media using "UK" is used in the form of " UK English ".
  3. ^ Export Trade Control Order for the change of country representation in such ( Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry ) archive than of the National Diet Library 2019-2-5 View
  4. ^ Kotobank "Egueres"
  5. ^ In addition, the United States that over as saying that "Tobei", (United Kingdom, in particular, the fact that across to England referred to as "went to England" list of traffic represented by the two-character phrase see).
  6. ^ Treaty of Union, 1706 ”. Scots History Online. Retrieved August 23, 2011 .
  7. ^ Barnett, Hilaire; Jago, Robert (2011). Constitutional & Administrative Law (8th ed.). Abingdon: Routledge. P. 165. ISBN 978-0-415-56301-7 .
  8. ^ See Article One of the Act of Union 1707.
  9. ^ "After the political union of England and Scotland in 1707, the nation's official name became 'Great Britain'", The American Pageant, Volume 1 , Cengage Learning (2012)
  10. ^ "From 1707 until 1801 Great Britain was the official designation of the kingdoms of England and Scotland". The Standard Reference Work: For the Home, School and Library, Volume 3 , Harold Melvin Stanford (1921)
  11. ^ "In 1707, on the union with Scotland, 'Great Britain' became the official name of the British Kingdom, and so continued until the union with Ireland in 1801". United States Congressional serial set, Issue 10; Issue 3265(1895)
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